Personalized data analytics for internet-of-things-based health monitoring
Azimi, Iman (2019-12-12)
Turku Centre of Computer Science
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The Internet-of-Things (IoT) has great potential to fundamentally alter the delivery of modern healthcare, enabling healthcare solutions outside the limits of conventional clinical settings. It can offer ubiquitous monitoring to at-risk population groups and allow diagnostic care, preventive care, and early intervention in everyday life. These services can have profound impacts on many aspects of health and well-being. However, this field is still at an infancy stage, and the use of IoT-based systems in real-world healthcare applications introduces new challenges. Healthcare applications necessitate satisfactory quality attributes such as reliability and accuracy due to their mission-critical nature, while at the same time, IoT-based systems mostly operate over constrained shared sensing, communication, and computing resources. There is a need to investigate this synergy between the IoT technologies and healthcare applications from a user-centered perspective. Such a study should examine the role and requirements of IoT-based systems in real-world health monitoring applications. Moreover, conventional computing architecture and data analytic approaches introduced for IoT systems are insufficient when used to target health and well-being purposes, as they are unable to overcome the limitations of IoT systems while fulfilling the needs of healthcare applications. This thesis aims to address these issues by proposing an intelligent use of data and computing resources in IoT-based systems, which can lead to a high-level performance and satisfy the stringent requirements. For this purpose, this thesis first delves into the state-of-the-art IoT-enabled healthcare systems proposed for in-home and in-hospital monitoring. The findings are analyzed and categorized into different domains from a user-centered perspective. The selection of home-based applications is focused on the monitoring of the elderly who require more remote care and support compared to other groups of people. In contrast, the hospital-based applications include the role of existing IoT in patient monitoring and hospital management systems. Then, the objectives and requirements of each domain are investigated and discussed. This thesis proposes personalized data analytic approaches to fulfill the requirements and meet the objectives of IoT-based healthcare systems. In this regard, a new computing architecture is introduced, using computing resources in different layers of IoT to provide a high level of availability and accuracy for healthcare services. This architecture allows the hierarchical partitioning of machine learning algorithms in these systems and enables an adaptive system behavior with respect to the user's condition. In addition, personalized data fusion and modeling techniques are presented, exploiting multivariate and longitudinal data in IoT systems to improve the quality attributes of healthcare applications. First, a real-time missing data resilient decision-making technique is proposed for health monitoring systems. The technique tailors various data resources in IoT systems to accurately estimate health decisions despite missing data in the monitoring. Second, a personalized model is presented, enabling variations and event detection in long-term monitoring systems. The model evaluates the sleep quality of users according to their own historical data. Finally, the performance of the computing architecture and the techniques are evaluated in this thesis using two case studies. The first case study consists of real-time arrhythmia detection in electrocardiography signals collected from patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases. The second case study is continuous maternal health monitoring during pregnancy and postpartum. It includes a real human subject trial carried out with twenty pregnant women for seven months.
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