Stool Microbiota Composition Differs in Patients with Stomach, Colon, and Rectal Neoplasms
Virinder Sarhadi; Tiina Karla; Selja Koskensalo; Pauli Puolakkainen; Homa Ehsan; Hilpi Rautelin; Tom Böhling; Arto Kokkola; Leo Lahti; Milja Tikkanen; Monika Carpelan-Holmström; Omar Youssef; Sakari Knuutila
Background: Microbial ecosystems that inhabit the human gut form central component of our physiology and metabolism, regulating and modulating both health and disease. Changes or disturbances in the composition and activity of this gut microbiota can result in altered immunity, inflammation, and even cancer.
Aim: To compare the composition and diversity of gut microbiota in stool samples from patient groups based on the site of neoplasm in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and to assess the possible contribution of the bacterial composition to tumorigenesis.
Methods: We studied gut microbiota by16S RNA gene sequencing from stool DNA of 83 patients, who were diagnosed with different GIT neoplasms, and 13 healthy individuals.
Results: As compared to healthy individuals, stools of patients with stomach neoplasms had elevated levels of Enterobacteriaceae, and those with rectal neoplasms had lower levels of Bifidobacteriaceae. Lower abundance of Lactobacillaceae was seen in patients with colon neoplasms. Abundance of Lactobacillaceae was higher in stools of GIT patients sampled after cancer treatment compared to samples collected before start of any treatment. In addition to site-specific differences, higher abundances of Ruminococcus, Subdoligranulum and lower abundances of Lachnoclostridium and Oscillibacter were observed in overall GIT neoplasms as compared to healthy controls
Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that the alterations in gut microbiota vary according to the site of GIT neoplasm. The observed lower abundance of two common families, Lactobacillaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae, and the increased abundance of Enterobacteriaceae could provide indicators of compromised gut health and potentially facilitate GIT disease monitoring.
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